Spanish colonization of the new world

Blog Spanish Discovery and Colonization During the 15th century, the Iberian Peninsula at the western end of the Mediterranean Sea became the focal point of European efforts to reach the riches of Asia by a sea route, rather than depend on the dangerous, costly and time-consuming ancient trade routes through the Middle East. Tiny Portugal emerged as the original leader of this effort. Lacking a coast on the Mediterranean, it was not surprising that the Portuguese sought a route to the East by rounding the tip of Africa.

Spanish colonization of the new world

Norse colonization of the Americas Voyages of the Vikings to America. Norse journeys to Greenland and Canada are supported by historical and archaeological evidence.

In the Treaty of Tordesillasratified by the Pope, these two kingdoms divided the entire non-European world into two areas of exploration and colonization, with a north to south boundary that cut through the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of present-day Brazil.

As a result, by the midth century, the Spanish Crown had gained control of much of western South America, and southern North Americain addition to its earlier Caribbean territories. Other European nations soon disputed the terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas.

England and France attempted to plant colonies in the Americas in the 16th century, but these failed. England and France succeeded in establishing permanent colonies in the following century, along with the Dutch Republic.

Some of these were on Caribbean islands, which had often already been conquered by the Spanish or depopulated by disease, while others were in eastern North America, which had not been colonized by Spain north of Florida.

Colonization in the New World

In the 18th century, Denmark—Norway revived its former colonies in Greenlandwhile the Russian Empire gained a foothold in Alaska. Denmark-Norway would later make several claims in the Caribbean, starting in the s.

As more nations gained an interest in the colonization of the Americas, competition for territory became increasingly fierce. Colonists often faced the threat of attacks from neighboring colonies, as well as from indigenous tribes and pirates. Early state-sponsored colonists[ edit ] Further information: Portugal in the Age of DiscoverySpanish colonization of the Americasand First European colonization wave 15th century—19th century The first phase of well-financed European activity in the Americas began with the Atlantic Ocean crossings of Christopher Columbus —sponsored by Spain, whose original attempt was to find a new route to India and China, known as " the Indies ".

Spanish colonization of the new world was followed by other explorers such as John Cabotwho was sponsored by England and reached Newfoundland. Amerigo Vespucciworking for Portugal in voyages from toestablished that Columbus had reached a new set of continents. Cartographers still use a Latinized version of his first name, America, for the two continents.

In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown. Iberian Union These explorations were followed, notably in the case of Spain, by a phase of conquest: The Spaniards, having just finished the Reconquista of Spain from Muslim rule, were the first to colonize the Americas, applying the same model of governing their European holdings to their territories of the New World.

As in the Iberian Peninsulathe inhabitants of Hispaniola were given new landmasters, while religious orders handled the local administration. Progressively the encomienda system, which granted tribute access to indigenous labor and taxation to European settlers, was set in place.

A relatively common misconception is that a small number of conquistadores conquered vast territories, aided only by disease epidemics and their powerful caballeros. In fact, recent archaeological excavations have suggested a vast Spanish-Indian alliance numbering in the hundreds of thousands.

Spanish colonization of the new world

Two years later, Charles V signed the New Laws which replaced the Laws of Burgos of prohibiting slavery and the repartimientosbut also claiming as his own all the American lands and all of the indigenous people as his own subjects.

Painting depicting a Castas with his mixed-race daughter and his Mulatta wife by Miguel CabreraWhen in Maythe Pope Alexander VI issued the Inter caetera bull granting the new lands to the Kingdom of Spainhe requested in exchange an evangelization of the people.

As slavery was prohibited between Christians, and could only be imposed in non-Christian prisoners of war or on men already sold as slaves, the debate on Christianization was particularly acute during the 16th century.

Inthe papal bull Sublimis Deus definitively recognized that Native Americans possessed souls, thus prohibiting their enslavement, without putting an end to the debate. Some claimed that a native who had rebelled and then been captured could be enslaved nonetheless. The process of Christianization was at first violent: To reward their troops, the Conquistadores often allotted Indian towns to their troops and officers.

Black African slaves were introduced to substitute for Native American labor in some locations—including the West Indieswhere the indigenous population was nearing extinction on many islands.

{dialog-heading} Contact Us Unit 1 - Spain in the New World to Bristol Mariners seem to have visited Canada in the s, and Christopher Columbus may have learned of, and been inspired by, their voyages. By Englishmen were trading in Newfoundland and parts south, and organizing syndicates, some involving Azorean Portuguese, to exploit the fisheries there.

During this time, the Portuguese gradually switched from an initial plan of establishing trading posts to extensive colonization of what is now Brazil. They imported millions of slaves to run their plantations.

They were sponsored by common stock companies such as the chartered Virginia Company financed by wealthy Englishmen who exaggerated the economic potential of this new land. The main purpose of this colony was the hope of finding gold.

The lack of food security leading to extremely high mortality rate was quite distressing and cause for despair among the colonists. To support the Colony, numerous supply missions were organized. Tobacco later became a cash crop, with the work of John Rolfe and others, for export and the sustaining economic driver of Virginia and the neighboring colony of Maryland.

During the 17th century, indentured servants constituted three-quarters of all European immigrants to the Chesapeake region. Most of the indentured servants were teenagers from England with poor economic prospects at home. Their fathers signed the papers that gave them free passage to America and an unpaid job until they became of age.

They were given food, clothing, housing and taught farming or household skills. By selling passage for five to seven years worth of work they could then start out on their own in America.

The Darien Scheme aimed to control trade through that part of the world and thereby promote Scotland into a world trading power.From to the s, Spanish explorers were the bullies of the New World.

Beginning with Columbus in and continuing for nearly years, Spain conquered and settled most of South America, the Caribbean, and the American Southwest. Spanish colonization of the Americas began in when Christopher Columbus found the Americas and mistook them for India.

Spanish Conquistadors came with the goals of “God, Gold, and Glory” and came seeking gold and riches. Spanish and English colonization efforts were very different with the English’s methods being more successful and profitable. Spanish colonization of the Americas began in when Christopher Columbus found the Americas and mistook them for India.

Spanish Conquistadors came with the goals of. By the time the English began active colonization, the Spanish had already explored large portions of North America, especially in the South and Southwest. The Spanish explorers encountered three major civilizations in the New World: the Incas in present-day Peru and the Mayans and Aztecs in Mexico and Central America.

In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the emancipation of most Spanish colonies in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were finally given up in , following the Spanish–American War, together with Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific.

Spain's loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas. The arrival of Europeans in the New World in changed the Americas forever. Over the course of the next years: Spain ruled a vast empire based on the labor and exploitation of the native population.

Colonization in the New World