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History Hypotheses about source Historian Alfred W. Crosby recorded that the flu originated in the U. In latemilitary pathologists reported the onset of a new disease with high mortality that they later recognized as the flu. It also was home to a live piggery, and poultry were regularly brought in for food supplies from surrounding villages.
Oxford and his team postulated that a significant precursor virus, harbored in birds, mutated so it could migrate to pigs that were kept near the front. Some hypothesized the flu originated in East Asia, a common area for transmission of disease from animals to humans because of dense living conditions.
Political scientist Andrew Price-Smith published data from the Austrian archives suggesting the influenza had earlier origins, beginning in Austria in early John's stated that newly unearthed records confirmed that one of the side stories of the war, the mobilization of 96, Chinese laborers to work behind the British and French lines on World War I's western front, might have been the source of the pandemic.
In the report, Humphries found archival evidence that a respiratory illness that struck northern China in November was identified a year later by Chinese health officials as identical to the "Spanish" flu.
It found evidence that the virus had been circulating in the European armies for months and possibly years before the pandemic. Some speculate the soldiers' immune systems were weakened by malnourishment, as well as the stresses of combat and chemical attacks, increasing their susceptibility.
Modern transportation systems made it easier for soldiers, sailors, and civilian travelers to spread the disease. Public Health Service's academic journal. On 4 Marchcompany cook Albert Gitchell reported sick at Fort Rileyan American military facility that at the time was training American troops during World War I, making him the first recorded victim of the flu.
The Spanish flu also spread through Ireland, carried there by returning Irish soldiers. The Allies of World War I came to call it the Spanish flu, primarily because the pandemic received greater press attention after it moved from France to Spain in November Spain was not involved in the war and had not imposed wartime censorship.
In the Four Corners area alone, 3, deaths were registered among Native Americans. One observer wrote, "One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhage from mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestine.
Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred". The virus also killed people directly, by causing massive hemorrhages and edema in the lung. Inolder adults may have had partial protection caused by exposure to the — flu pandemicknown as the Russian flu.
Slower-progressing cases featured secondary bacterial pneumonias, and there may have been neural involvement that led to mental disorders in some cases. Some deaths resulted from malnourishment. They tried to study the factors that underlie variability in temporal patterns, and the patterns of mortality and morbidity.
Their analysis suggests that temporal variations in transmission rate provide the best explanation, and the variation in transmission required to generate these three waves is within biologically plausible values.Lay the foundations for Spanish fluency!
From vocabulary and grammar to listening and reading skills, IXL prepares learners for real-world communication. This can be confusing if you are mixing between speakers of American English and Spanish, so it is often best to write it out, or to write an abbreviation for the month to be clear (i.e.
10/nov/). "Spanish Harlem" is a song recorded by Ben E. King in for Atco Records. It was written by Jerry Leiber and Phil Spector, and produced by Jerry Leiber and Mike vetconnexx.com a interview, Leiber credited Stoller with the arrangement; similarly, in a radio interview with Leiber and Stoller on the Bob Edwards Weekend talk show, Jerry Leiber said that Stoller, while uncredited, had.
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