They invite mixed-sex crowds to these parties so they can do things like bob for apples, where faces come very close to each other. He has collected and studied hundreds of postcards that circulated among women at this time, and, when it comes to the Halloween-themed ones, he is particularly interested in illustrations of witches. For centuries, the archetype of the hag with a hooked nose, warts, scraggly hair and a cauldron has pervaded art and literature.
Moskop and Melissa M. Modern, scientifically produced formulas in clean bottles, however, now offer another safe choice for babies in North Carolina and elsewhere. Few records exist about infant feeding during the Middle Ages, but we know that between and the late s it was not fashionable for wealthier women in the West to nurse their babies.
Often, families hired another woman, called a wet nurseto feed the baby. Pap was a very unwholesome, thin mixture of bread and liquid boiled to a pulpy texture.
Cleaning infant cups and pap feeders was almost impossible. They exposed hand-fed babies to harmful bacteria, and the food lacked important nutrients. Aroundthings began changing. People recognized that glass was a better material for baby bottles.
Because glass is clear, it can be cleaned more easily. Still, many more artificially fed babies died young, compared to naturally fed babies. Medical writers insisted that human milk was best for babies.
During the second half of the s, doctors realized two important things about feeding infants. First, human milk stays almost germ-free as it passes from mother to child. Prepared formula—especially from animal milk —in a bottle, cup, or spoon can be contaminated.
It is less sweet and lacks nutrients. Human infants have a hard time digesting it. The first fact made physicians encourage the use of glass feeding bottles designed for easy sterilization. Bydrugstores sold a variety of prepared infant foods. Doctors offered complicated instructions for homemade artificial feeding formulas well into the s.
Better choices finally came. Similac, first sold as a powder inand Enfamil, introduced inare artificial infant foods we still use today. When these formulas are mixed at home with clean water and bottles, artificially fed babies usually grow up just fine.
Although it has taken hundreds of years, at least in the United States and in other developed countries, babies now have food that is sweet and clean. Nasea was the history collections librarian at Laupus Health Sciences Library.H-Gram commemorates the victory in World War I, covers the U.S.
Navy's contribution toward that victory, and spotlights the U.S.
Navy personnel awarded the Medal of Honor during the conflict. In , the number of schools of public health had increased to 12, and in , 29 accredited schools of public health enrolled approximately 15, students (31,32). Besides the increase in the number of schools and students, the types of student in public health schools changed.
When reading about the history of sleepwear one has to bear in mind that night attire has been influenced by climate, prudery, elites, and since the late s, by . By , the colonists in America numbered about , Approximately , immigrants arrived between and the start of the Revolutionary War.
During that period, fewer English immigrants came, while the number from Germany, Ireland, and Scotland rose sharply.
WORLD HISTORY: – T he period to saw the beginnings, and the develop-ment, of the British Empire in India. Empire was not planned, at least not in the early stages.
In a sense, it just happened. The The British Impact on India, – Census data, news headlines, and pop culture images and information related to the decade of the s.
Census data, news headlines, and pop culture images and information related to the decade of the s. Survey and census questions cover poverty, income, and wealth. Kodak® introduces the "Brownie" camera in February On.