It is also called the Aural oral approach. Both were considered as a reaction against the shortcomings of the Grammar Translation methodboth reject the use of the mother tongue and both stress that speaking and listening competences preceded reading and writing competences.
The Audiolingual Method Historical Background Richards and Rodgers provide one of the most thorough descriptions of the historical background of the Audio-lingual Method, from which the following information has largely been drawn.
Audiolingualism came about as a result of a number of developments in linguistics, psychology, and politics. In the s, linguists at the University of Michigan and other universities were engaged in developing materials for teaching English to foreign students studying in the U. Lessons consisted of intensive oral drilling of grammatical patterns and pronunciation.
At approximately the same time, the United States was drawn into World War II and needed personnel who were fluent in foreign languages. Upon finding a lack of Americans with sufficient language skills, in the U. The success of this program convinced a number of prominent linguists of the value of an intensive oral approach to language learning.
Most American schools and universities, however, continued to employ the Grammar-Translation Method or the Reading Method well into the s. In Russia launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite, causing the U.
The National Defense Education Act of provided funds for developing foreign language teaching materials and training teachers, and language teaching specialists set about developing new teaching methods.
They drew upon the earlier Structural Approach and the Army program, as well as on principles of behaviorist psychology.
The new approach, which Yale professor Nelson Brooks dubbed audio-lingual Brooks,p. The Audiolingual Method was widely adopted in the U. First, linguist Noam Chomsky questioned the theoretical basis for the method, particularly the assumption that external conditioning could account for all language learning Chomsky, These developments led to the eventual abandonment of the method, although some of its practices, such as dialogue learning and pattern drills, continue to be used in some foreign language programs.
Theory of Language Learning Audiolingualism views language as a set of structures, including phonemes, morphemes, and syntax, the patterns of which can be deduced by analyzing the language used by native speakers.
The audiolingual syllabus is organized around these linguistic structures, which are represented in dialogues and pattern drills. A second tenet of audiolingualism is that language is primarily an oral phenomenon, inasmuch as all natural languages first developed orally, and children learn their first language orally before learning its written form.
Thus, the Audiolingual Method teaches listening and speaking before reading and writing. Reading and writing are introduced later, and consist primarily of material that was first learned orally.
The learning theory underlying the Audiolingual Method is behaviorism, a prominent school of psychological thought in the first half of the twentieth century.
Behaviorism posits that all learning occurs as humans respond to external stimuli and their response is either rewarded or punished, which serves to increase or decrease the behavior.
Skinner, in his book Verbal Behavior, included language among the behaviors that are learned through this type of conditioning. Brooks explained how behaviorist theory was to be applied in the classroom, with teachers providing linguistic stimuli in the form of dialogues and drills," reinforcing students" correct responses, and correcting their errors.The Audio-lingual Method was widely used in the s and s, and the emphasis was not on the understanding of words, but rather on the acquisition of structures .
The Audiolingual Method. A. Important Concepts. 1. Selection of materials -- contrastive analysis. a. Major advocates and researchers in contrastive analysis: C.C.
Fries and Robert Lado. The Audio-Lingual method of teaching had its origins during World War II when it became known as the Army Method. It is also called the Aural oral approach.
It is based on the structural view of language and the behaviorist theory of language learning.
The Audiolingual Method. Historical Background. Richards and Rodgers () provide one of the most thorough descriptions of the historical background of the Audio-lingual Method, from which the following information has largely been drawn.
The Audio-Lingual method of teaching had its origins during World War II when it became known as the Army Method. It is also called the Aural oral approach.
It is based on the structural view of language and the behaviorist theory of language learning. In relation to the audio-lingual method, Richards and Rodgers () claimed that "Students were often found to be unable to transfer skills acquired through Audiolingualism to real communication outside the classroom" (p.