An introduction to the issue of an oil spill

Congress to compensate statewide Native claims. The shares paid dividends based on both the settlement and corporation profits. Many natives were worried that the disruption caused by the pipeline would scare away the whales and caribou that are relied upon for food. The arguments continued through

An introduction to the issue of an oil spill

A surf scoter covered in oil as a result of the San Francisco Bay oil spill A bird covered in oil from the Black Sea oil spill In general, spilled oil can affect animals and plants in two ways: Animals who rely on scent to find their babies or mothers cannot due to the strong scent of the oil.

This causes a baby to be rejected and abandoned, leaving the babies to starve and eventually die.

An introduction to the issue of an oil spill

Oil can impair a bird's ability to fly, preventing it from foraging or escaping from predators. As they preenbirds may ingest the oil coating their feathers, irritating the digestive tractaltering liver function, and causing kidney damage.

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Together with their diminished foraging capacity, this can rapidly result in dehydration and metabolic imbalance. Some birds exposed to petroleum also experience changes in their hormonal balance, including changes in their luteinizing protein.

Oil coats the fur of sea otters and sealsreducing its insulating effect, and leading to fluctuations in body temperature and hypothermia. Oil can also blind an animal, leaving it defenseless.

The ingestion of oil causes dehydration and impairs the digestive process. Animals can be poisoned, and may die from oil entering the lungs or liver. There are three kinds of oil-consuming bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria SRB and acid-producing bacteria are anaerobicwhile general aerobic bacteria GAB are aerobic.

These bacteria occur naturally and will act to remove oil from an ecosystem, and their biomass will tend to replace other populations in the food chain. The chemicals from the oil which dissolve in water, and hence are available to bacteria, are those in the water associated fraction of the oil.

In addition, oil spills can also harm air quality. In addition, these chemicals can be oxidized by oxidants in the atmosphere to form fine particulate matter after they evaporate into the atmosphere.

An introduction to the issue of an oil spill

Burning surface oil can also be a source for pollution such as soot particles. During the cleanup and recovery process, it will also generate air pollutants such as nitric oxides and ozone from ships. Lastly, bubble bursting can also be a generation pathway for particulate matter during an oil spill.

Air quality monitoring data showed that criteria pollutants had exceeded the health-based standard in the coastal regions. This is about eight times the amount spilled in the widely known Exxon Valdez oil spill.

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Despite efforts of scientists, managers, and volunteers overseabirdsabout 1, sea ottersand immense numbers of fish were killed. The International Association of Independent Tanker Owners has observed that "accidental oil spills this decade have been at record low levels—one third of the previous decade and one tenth of the s—at a time when oil transported has more than doubled since the mid s.

According to the United States Coast Guard Clean-up efforts after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Cleanup and recovery from an oil spill is difficult and depends upon many factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water affecting evaporation and biodegradationand the types of shorelines and beaches involved.

However, microorganisms such as Fusobacteria species demonstrate an innovative potential for future oil spill cleanup because of their ability to colonize and degrade oil slicks on the sea surface.

Oleophilic, hydrophobic chemical, containing no bacteria, which chemically and physically bonds to both soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons. The bioremediation accelerator acts as a herding agent in water and on the surface, floating molecules to the surface of the water, including solubles such as phenols and BTEX, forming gel-like agglomerations.

Undetectable levels of hydrocarbons can be obtained in produced water and manageable water columns. By overspraying sheen with bioremediation accelerator, sheen is eliminated within minutes.

Whether applied on land or on water, the nutrient-rich emulsion creates a bloom of local, indigenous, pre-existing, hydrocarbon-consuming bacteria. They may rapidly disperse large amounts of certain oil types from the sea surface by transferring it into the water column.

They will cause the oil slick to break up and form water-soluble micelles that are rapidly diluted. The oil is then effectively spread throughout a larger volume of water than the surface from where the oil was dispersed. They can also delay the formation of persistent oil-in-water emulsions.

However, laboratory experiments showed that dispersants increased toxic hydrocarbon levels in fish by a factor of up to and may kill fish eggs. Research indicates that some dispersants are toxic to corals. Requires calm waters at all times during the process.

Solidifiers are composed of tiny, floating, dry ice pellets, [66] [67] [68] and hydrophobic polymers that both adsorb and absorb.

They clean up oil spills by changing the physical state of spilled oil from liquid to a solid, semi-solid or a rubber-like material that floats on water. Solidifiers have been proven to be relatively non-toxic to aquatic and wild life and have been proven to suppress harmful vapors commonly associated with hydrocarbons such as benzenexylene and naphtha.

The reaction time for solidification of oil is controlled by the surface area or size of the polymer or dry pellets as well as the viscosity and thickness of the oil layer.GUIDANCE NOTES FOR PREPARING OIL POLLUTION EMERGENCY PLANS For Offshore Oil and Gas Installations and Relevant Oil Handling Facilities October Effects of Oil Spills: An oil spill happens when liquid petroleum is released into the environment by vehicle, vessel or pipeline.

the issue of oil spills and their effects has taken on much importance. This is because when an oil spill occurs, it causes a multitude of problems for the environment and us.

Founded Conserve Energy Future. Oil Spill preparedness and response: an introduction July This document provides a synopsis of the essential components of an effective oil spill preparedness, response and restoration framew ork.

An introduction to Marine oil spills James Perran Ross, Dept. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation IFAS, University of Florida [email protected] Updated 15 May Jan 11,  · Start with making wicking from salted paper The salt keeps the paper from burning too fast. Also the salted paper wicking is stiff so it doesn't need wire to stand up.

This property is useful for the candles and oil lamps described in the following steps. Fight continues for Nigeria oil spill victims, Al Jazeera, June 8, For more information, the following are good places to start: Democracy Now!’s section called Voices from the Nigerian Resistance; The award-winning documentary, Drilling and Killing by Amy Goodman, Jeremy Scahill and Dred Scott Keyes Assassins in Foreign Lands: A CorpWatch Radio Interview with Human Rights Activist.

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