The beasts of the field, the birds of the air, and even the fish of the sea perish Hos 4: In the biblical vision, therefore, injustice results in suffering for all creation.
Introduction Evolution itself is simply the process of change over time. When applied to biology, evolution generally refers to changes in life forms over time.
The Theory of Biological Evolution is most often associated with Charles Darwin, because it was Charles Darwin that proposed the mechanism of natural selection and accompanied that proposition with a large volume of empirical data providing evidence for biological evolution.
Darwin was not, however, the first person to propose an evolutionary explanation for the diversity of life on earth.
In fact, evolutionary concepts about life date far back into history and arose in many different cultures. The Greeks developed a concept of evolution over 2, years ago that was basically equivalent to that of Charles Darwin's, but the early Christians opposed the idea and destroyed all of the works that promoted it or any other naturalistic explanations for earthly phenomena.
Origin Mythology There are literally thousands of different mythological stories about the origin of the world and of life. There are several common themes in origin mythology, but there are many different means by which the universe, earth, life, and man have come into being throughout the various different origin myths.
The importance and role of origin mythology has varied widely from culture to culture throughout history as well. In many archaic cultures origin mythology was not central to the belief system, nor were the origin myths fully thought-out to a logical conclusion. In societies that did not have writing, origin myths, like all of the other myths, were passed down orally, and often served as a form of entertainment as well as a means of passing on beliefs that were important to the society.
When looking at origin myths from around the world several patterns can be observed.
The origin myths of pre-agricultural societies tend to place humans and animals in close relations, while the origin myths of agricultural societies tend describe a separate creation of humans. Some of the beliefs about humans and animals that are expressed in various origin myths include beliefs that: Among more technologically advanced societies, where separation between humans and other animals was more pronounced and where humans had domesticated animals, themes such as the domination of man over animals, the separate creation of man from animals, and the creation of animals for the use of man are common themes in origin mythology.
Australian Aboriginal culture is thought to be the oldest continuous culture in the world, due to the isolation of the Australian continent. The mythology of the Aboriginal Australians is also thought to be reflective of some of man's earliest mythology.
Below is one telling of Aboriginal Australian origin mythology. In the beginning the earth was a bare plain.
There was no life, no death. The sun, the moon, and the stars slept beneath the earth. All the eternal ancestors slept there, too, until at last they woke themselves out of their own eternity and broke through to the surface.
When the eternal ancestors arose, in the Dreamtime, they wandered the earth, sometimes in animal form - as kangaroos, or emus, or lizards -- sometimes in human shape, sometimes part animal and human, sometimes as part human and plant.
Two such beings, self-created out of nothing, were the Ungambikula. Wandering the world, they found half-made human beings.
They were made of animals and plants, but were shapeless bundles, lying higgledy-piggledy, near where water holes and salt lakes could be created. The people were all doubled over into balls, vague and unfinished, without limbs or features. With their great stone knives, the Ungambikula carved heads, bodies, legs, and arms out of the bundles.
They made the faces, and the hands and feet. At last the human beings were finished. Thus every man and woman was transformed from nature and owes allegiance to the totem of the animal or the plant that made the bundle they were created from -- such as the plum tree, the grass seed, the large and small lizards, the parakeet, or the rat.
This work done, the ancestors went back to sleep. Some of them returned to underground homes, others became rocks and trees. The trails the ancestors walked in the Dreamtime are holy trails.
Everywhere the ancestors went, they left sacred traces of their presence -- a rock, a waterhole, a tree. For the Dreamtime does not merely lie in the distant past, the Dreamtime is the eternal Now. In many Native American and Asian mythologies there is no specific creator god or act of creation, instead the world is said to have formed out of chaos, and the development of life is said to be a product of some spirit force.
This spirit force is often said in these belief systems to be ever-present and continually acting.
Native American mythology generally presents humans and animals as being related and having common ancestry. Many different Native American cultures discovered and interpreted fossils and integrated the knowledge of fossils into their origin mythology.As human cloning, in theory, is producing an exact genetic duplicate of either a human cell, tissue, or reproductive (in which a cloned embryo would rise into becoming another human being), the different arguments both for and against human cloning vary according to the level of human cloning that is being discussed.
Bioethics. Bioethics is a rather young academic inter-disciplinary field that has emerged rapidly as a particular moral enterprise against the background of the revival of applied ethics in the second half of the twentieth century.
Applied Ethics. Under what conditions is an abortion morally permissible? Does a citizen have a moral obligation to actively participate (perhaps by voting) in the democratic process of one’s nation (assuming one is living in a democracy)?
She said the debate on the ethical, moral and scientific aspects of therapeutic cloning could take many years, and it was the universally backed view that there was a critical need now for an international legal instrument against reproductive cloning.
But beyond the scientific level, the cloning issue has been controversial since ethics and morality on the same day when the idea was developed, there is this almost years, and ethical questions raised about human cloning are several levels.
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